Dysphagia Mnemonic (difficulty swallowing):
Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) means it takes more time & effort to move food or liquid from mouth to stomach. Having trouble remembering all the important questions to ask during your patient encounter? Then try this Dysphagia Mnemonic (difficulty swallowing) for USMLE Step 2 CS.
- HEENT: Check throat for erythema and exudate
- Neck exam: Check for lymphadenopathy, thyromegaly
- Cardiovascular exam: Auscultation
- Pulmonary exam: Auscultation
- Abdominal exam: Inspection, auscultation, palpation, percussion.
- Skin: check for signs of scleroderma/CREST.
- Esophageal cancer (Dysphagia starts with Solids and progresses to liquids. Hx of chronic alcoholism, smoking & weight loss )
- Achalasia (Dysphasia for BOTH solid and liquids)
- Esophagitis (Pain on swallowing. Immunocompromised “e.g. HIV, Corticosteroids”)
- Systemic Sclerosis (Look for CREST syndrome)
- Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease ‘GERD’ (Cough at nights, Hoarseness, sore throat)
- Plummer-Vinson syndrome (Iron deficiency anemia, sore throat, craving ice, dirt, clay…)
- Zenker diverticulum (Halitosis, regurgitation)
- Pill-induced esophagitis (e.g. Bisphosphonates)
- Mitral Valve Stenosis (look for an immigrant or a pregnant female)
- Serum iron, ferritin, TIBC
- Throat culture
- HIV antibody, viral load and CD4 count
- Chest X-ray
- Barium swallow
- Esophageal manometry
- Chest CT (to rule out any masses pressing on the esophagus)
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Dysphagia Mnemonic (difficulty swallowing). Dysphagia Mnemonic (difficulty swallowing). Dysphagia Mnemonic (difficulty swallowing).